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Voltage peaks - how to fight it

Throws/ racing mains there a long time, but in the last 10 years, this problem becomes more and more relevant for our country. This is due, in my opinion, with a sharp increase in consumption/use of a large number of household appliances, and if 15-20 years ago all sensitive appliances consisted of TV and the VCR only later (in the worst case overvoltage bulb burn out), now each apartment are many sensitive household appliances, which is almost all the time connected to the network.
The result of overvoltage or sometimes even the low voltage level (a separate issue that will be discussed below) can be a failure of the home appliances installed in the apartment and connected at the time of the overvoltage to the network.
In most cases, the failure of household appliances cause is over-voltage in the network, so in the future it would be a overvoltage in the network. The case where the cause of excessively undervalued voltage level will be considered separately.
Once consumers burn household appliances, people are starting to ask questions:
How could this happen ?, What is the reason ?, How to avoid? and perhaps the main
Who is to blame?  
Next I will try to answer most of the available set of questions.
Over-voltage network.
To start with the question:
“ What are the surge in the network? ”
Overvoltage network – is the result of an accident or an excess of power associated with its uneven consumption. Continuous operation at high voltage accelerates resource consumption equipment, and a significant excess of the normal level of stress leads to failure and possible fire.
        So the accident, the excess energy – some vague, but what lies behind this phrase?
“ Why there is over-voltage in the network ? ”
There are several reasons. We select the most common:
1. Let's start with the fact that to the AC power connected not only you (your apartment/house) and many of the same customers as you, and that is important, and many more industrial consumers. It would seem that the impact could have a house on the grid? Certainly little impact ....
Then we'll do a retreat on the theme of “ How do I affect the network? ”:
Imagine that the entire network - a huge accumulator/distributor of energy (Mega LC filter).   So you're sitting at home, you have all the appliances (home appliances) is working at this moment our Mega LC-filter (infinite possible input power) consumes a steady current and distributes it to many consumers. Everything is wonderful voltage is 220V, and then you turn off the all their technique - you instant cease to consume your desired current (desired power), and Mega filter is still fueled by the established power, what happens when the capacitor comes more energy than is taken from him? - Correct voltage jumps on it./The retreat is finished return to the main text/& hellip;
So, as we have seen above, each malomalski the consumer makes at the time of on/off the equipment (dynamic transients) contribute to the imbalance of the mains voltage.
And if at the same time with you 1000 will include all their equipment - then we get some overvoltage, - but do not be afraid - it will still be less than the allowable   GOST th   and all of your equipment will continue to work in normal rezhime.Drugoe thing is that if at the same time enable/disable their equipment whole plant. Will represent a quantum leap !!! ..... This option is possible in areas where the entire infrastructure is tied to one large plant. Then it is possible that your machinery burned.
Do not rush it's not all ... as described above is just one of the possible causes of overvoltage.
2. Another reason for surge - it breaks   network wire or short circuit. Imagine the city of A, B, and C, consumed equal power and then on the line Elektra transmission (power lines), marching to the city A tree fell - open as a result - a momentary power surge and the people of the towns B and lost equipment.
3. Cause   a purely Russian character - you turn off the light in the entrance - you called in the proper. service. Bob Came electrician and flicked the toggle switch is not, you in the stairwell connecting the phase of the network instead of 220 380 ... Do not laugh, widespread case ...
4. Last but not least, it surges caused by lightning near the power lines. It is very dangerous - I highly recommend it if you do not have special equipment for surge protection – to switch off appliances from the network during a lightning storm ...
All of this points to 1-2   the worse the smaller the capacity of the network ....
Sometimes there is a question for someone more dangerous overvoltage – for residents of cities or for residents of small towns and villages. It turns out that it is dangerous for the   all. For residents are dangerous, paragraphs 1 and 3, and for villages and suburban areas 2 and 4, but everything is relative.
So, we have considered the main causes of surges in the network, but it's easier this does not become, for machines already burned, then read on & hellip;
Who is responsible for the lost equipment?
Paradoxically, despite the fact that the electricity supplier is obliged to provide you the voltage specified quality,   you probably will not be able to receive compensation for lost equipment.
This is due to the fact that in most cases, a first power supplier state. Enterprise (immediately disappear as options to win in court against the state on the territory of that State is nonsense), and secondly, how can you prove that the cause of failure of the technique has over-voltage in the network and is not a defect engineering.
So the conclusion is very sad – 99% of you no one is take the money for the lost equipment.      
What do you do, do each time throwing technique? Of course not. There are methods of dealing with surges.
How to deal with surges in the network.
There are several ways:
1. Use voltage regulators – This is ideal for those who use very expensive equipment. You connect the power wires to the stabilizer and have him shoot high quality voltage. A very good option – There is only one drawback – This price. The price of a good (quality) stabilizer can be calculated from the ratio of 1 USD 1 W & hellip; Of course,   if you have a large amount of equipment, will have to spend a round sum, but much later (the correct choice of stabilizer) can rest easy - your technique is secure.
2. If you are working with valuable information on your computer, or if the power failure is prohibitive (because of the scope of – such as hospital), then select Uninterruptible Power (UPS) – protect equipment from power surges, and even going to work at a time when all lights switched off.
Minus all the same – even more expensive than the stabilizers.
3. switch voltage-limiting – available at present only in the West – It is no one certified in Russia – cost at least 100-200 USD   Option has little applicability and still quite expensive for the average user.
4. Using the parallel RCD and cash flow.
RCDs – residual current device provides the network off the premises in the event of leakage (if the person took the bare wires 10-30mA or if the insulation was burning – 300mA). This device is recommended in Moscow for installation in all new buildings. There are 2 types of RCD – the so-called electro - mechanical made only brands (such as ABB), based on the precise mechanics – guarantee the salvation of human life at any voltage, hence their second name - independent of the voltage.
Another highly prevalent in Russia RCD type – e. Do these devices, many companies, but do not forget, by choosing the RCD is that you will not guarantee the salvation of human life if we say stress in your network is much lower than the nominal, hence the second name of the RCD – depending on the voltage.
Sensor overvoltage – a device designed specifically for the overvoltage protection is designed to work with any type of RCD (leakage current 10-300 mA) for both single-phase and three-phase networks. The principle is this: If the network voltage, DPN gives the command to turn off the RCD supply from the apartment. Thus, your apartment is de-energized and the net voltage does not harm your household appliances. To restore power simply reset the RCD.
Harm undervalued mains.
Can such a situation, when voltage is much too low – it can damage some household appliances as for example some of the functions will work mechanics and the control circuit (SS) is not, or vice versa. Also through approximately underestimated voltage greatly reduces the life of the light bulbs.
Corruption equipment from low voltage is less common than the surge. To avoid failure of the technique can be used 1-2 points may (3) of this section   “ How to deal with surges in the network. ”
In this article, I only expressed his views on the existing problem of voltage surges in domestic and industrial networks. I   I do not claim to absolute truth in all positions. It should be borne in mind that the methods of struggle are valid at the time of writing this article.
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