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How to choose a chainsaw

How to choose a chainsaw Domestic saws — the most primitive. To their aid usually resorted on occasion, for example when it is necessary to prepare wood for the fireplace. The functional ability of such drink minimum. They calculated an average of 20 hours of operation per month (about 40 minutes per day), and their low power offset lightweight and easy to handle.

Semi-model perform any work — from the construction and repair to felling trees. Their only drawback — impossibility to use for 8-10 hours a day for an extended period. Often they serve as lumberjacks loppers.

Professional saws have a high capacity (usually more than 2.5 kW) and are characterized by a wide range of functions. They are used mainly as a rotary shaft drank, they may work tirelessly all year for 10-16 hours a day. However, the main feature of professional tools — 8 hours without a break. These saws are made from durable and wear-resistant materials, and their share ranges between 1300-2000 hours (for domestic models, the figure is 2-3 times lower).
Resource operation.
precise and clear definition of « life of the », which would be equally operated on all manufacturers and sellers do not exist. The townsfolk treat it as a time to send the instrument in a landfill, and specialists — as the time to first major overhaul of the engine compression or decrease by 40%. As can be seen, to name a precise figure is difficult, and almost impossible, so the focus here is on the presence of corporate services.
Advice manual chainsaw (as, indeed, any other tool) is: to choose the mode of operation and to avoid significant congestion. Couples right here: how the tool cost, so he is.

Cutting speed
When purchasing a chainsaw, buyers often ask the question about the speed of the wood cutting tool particular brand (for example, whether to put pressure on him at the same time). This primarily depends on the saw sets, and in particular the chain. When the dull chain sawing efficiency drops significantly, and the probability of failure increases saw as increasing the load on the engine. Therefore, the professional approach to the process to regularly edit the chain (for example, at the end of the day). In addition, a significant contribution to the performance of making the shape of the cutting teeth and the chain pitch.
The best result is achieved by optimal selection of chain and engine power. Power Saws — This is the second important parameter characterizing its activity and determining the applicability of the stringent conditions of the model.

The problem kickback
The most dangerous moment during the operation saw — the so-called kickback, garbage or sharp instrument toward the operator. This happens when the end of the guide bar occurs with the surface of the treated wood.
The only way to protect themselves from injury at the same — quick stop chain. This function is performed by a special brake (it is called inertia), which serves as the drive for the plate, located in front of the left hand of the operator. It is a kind of lever which can occupy two positions. Before starting guard position switches « closer to the hand » and thus placed on the squad. At the moment of kickback operator's hand rests on him, and guard work, instantly activating the chain brake. In addition, it can change the position of without interference from the hand of the operator — simply by inertia.
Another way to avoid kickback — excluding dangerous sector of the cutting process. This is done by another panel (defensive sectors) covering the end of the saw sets and allows the tool to kick. However, recourse to this method is much less than to install the chain brake. Moreover, Swedish saws (Husqvarna, Jonsered, Partner) not knowingly equip such shields. The reason is that the Swedish security standards include the ability to work end of the bus. Tree felling lumberjack-Swede is very similar to cutting a loaf of bread: the operator first bites into the wood end of the bus, and then make a circle around the stem.

Anti-vibration system
Prolonged contact with strongly oscillating tool can lead to serious diseases of the joints, so the presence of anti-vibration system is necessary, especially in the professional models. The simplest kind of — set of rubber gaskets located between the arms and body. However, such anti-vibration system is almost irrelevant — modern saws typically implemented principle the two masses of the engine block separated from the block arms and of the fuel tank.
Anyone who has ever worked for a powerful saw for several hours, he knows what a huge burden experienced hands due to vibration. In the absence of sufficient vibration isolation is fraught with blood circulation and other unpleasant consequences. Therefore, if there is no desire, along with specialty and professional lumberjack acquire the disease should pay attention to what kind of protection against vibration, the system delivers. Even better is to ask when buying a chainsaw to run and hold her in his arms.

Power and weight
Manufacturers avoiding domestic models to increase capacity, because it leads to an increase in the weight of the instrument. In addition, high power — not the most important factor in the use of chainsaws in the household. The favorable ratio of weight — Power is important for professional, since this parameter affects the ease of operation and, as a consequence, the quality of work. In general, for a class of professional chainsaws is typical much greater variation in capacity (from 2 to 6 kW) than for residential. This is due to a variety of conditions in which the use of such tools (different thickness of tree trunks, hard or frozen timber, and so on. D.).

Forms tires
There are several types of guide bars and chains, designed for different purposes and users. Saw sets for household drinking suit those users who take the instrument from time to time and do not have special skills. To best protect such operators, manufacturers set a narrow flat tire with a low-profile chain, which has a very low tendency to kickback. Lightweight tires optimized for the work, which is the role of the weight of the chainsaw (eg, sawing at an altitude). Such tires comprise two steel plates with selected slots, cavities therebetween filled polyamide. This design significantly reduces the weight of the tool.
For professional use and long-term operation set the tire with interchangeable heads. They are mounted on the saw medium and high power.

The length of the bus
The technical characteristics of the chainsaw to the terms of the length of the bus is usually added to the word « recommended ». What does this mean? The fact that the longer the tire, the more resistance it provides to the torque of the engine crankshaft. In case of insufficient power saws have to make additional efforts that will lead to premature amortization saw sets and motor. In addition, since most of the power will go idle, increases fuel consumption.
Thus, the length of the bus should be harmonized with power saws and « recommended » is in fact the maximum (at the bus lengths can be set, but more — undesirable).

The low-profile chain designed for non-professional use. As a rule, their pitch is 0.325 inches, so the main advantage of this circuit (the minimum level of vibration) blends in with its lack of — reduced productivity.
On the powerful chainsaws recommended chain pitch 3/8 and 0.404 inches. Vibration levels have increased, but the activity is much greater. Such chains are optimal for felling and bucking of thick trees. There is also a special class of problems which conventional circuit is not able to handle (they very quickly become dull). This sawing dirty or frozen wood. For such work, there are special carbide tipped chain.

Why is 3/8, not 0,375?
Many times wondered what the chain pitch and why he has such strange notation: in one case & mdash ; as a decimal, and in another — plain.
The answer is, theoretically, step — the distance between the two nearest teeth, whereas almost — the distance between the chain rivets divided by two. Step circuit is measured in inches and may be equal to 0.325; 0.375 or 0.404.
As the world experience, users often confuse the number of labeling, as 0.375 and 0.325 differ only in the single digits. To avoid such incidents, the producers decided to stick to a single notation, according to which the step chain takes three values: 0.325, 0.404, and 3/8 inches.

How to choose the saw headset
It should be remembered that the components saw sets (chain, bus, driving sprocket or sprocket) of different companies, usually incompatible. The differences in parameters leading sprocket (under which should be a step chain) and the thickness of the leading chain link, which varies within 1.3-1.6 mm. Therefore, choosing a specific model, whether electric or chainsaw, the buyer almost always become a fan of components of the same brand.
Many people believe that the more the chain pitch, so it is more aggressive. In fact, the situation is somewhat different. It turns out, the aggressiveness of the saw with a certain chain is heavily dependent on the capacity and thus torque.
The power tool determines the ability of smuggling in the saw cut through the chain. Here on this process just beat the designers of many firms. As it turned out, for a drink with a small cylinder capacity (and therefore with low power) circuit with a pitch to put unprofitable 3/8 — step over a wide range of teeth stronger bites into the wood, but the engine is not able to push through it. Total — uneconomical work only part of the canvas. Conversely, powerful saws, chain staffed 0.325 inches, simply drags the chain, almost touching the tree.
It was withdrawn following pattern. For saws with a cylinder capacity of 40-50 cubic centimeters efficient chain pitch 0.325 inches, while for the more powerful machines will be optimum step 3/8. In the category of 40-50 cubes are used as well as other chain — choice is due to the specific features of the model.
There is another category — powerful saws with high torque (for example, domestic « Ural 2TE »). On such machines are possible chain pitch 0.404 inches.
Finally, we must not forget: changing the circuit to another with a different pitch, have to be replaced and the drive sprocket.

Requirements for petrol and oil
In any set saw a two-stroke petrol engine and two tanks (one — to fill the fuel mixture, another — chain oil ). Tank capacity is 0.3 to 1 liter, and the amount of oil, usually less 1.5-2. This volume ratio leads to the fact that the chain oil and fuel mixture ends approximately at the same time, namely 30-45 minutes of operation (at full load).
The need to prepare the fuel mixture is clear to anyone who is familiar with the two-stroke engines: unlike a two-stroke cycle engine of the four-stroke lead to the fact that for the lubrication of all moving parts (piston, shaft and so on. d.) You can not apply the system of oil pumps and the oil must be added directly to gasoline. All this is quite important, as when trying to run only on gasoline or a mixture of violation proportions benzinomaslyanoy tool quickly break.
Recommendations grades of gasoline and oil, as well as the proportions of the fuel mixture following.
In fact, domestic oil for two-stroke engines are suitable for foreign chainsaws, but should bear in mind two things. First of all, you need to be sure that pure gasoline. Second oil motorcycle engines are designed to speed up to 8500 per minute, and because foreign production chainsaws Turnover may reach 11-14 thousand, the use of these oils reduces the service life of the tool on average by 7-10%. So is it worth it, will have to decide.
With the oil to lubricate the saw unit easier: all models of consumer and professional chainsaws can be used for conventional oil « Zhiguli » (eg, The Husqvarna recommended engine oil, and for Stihl — transmission).
It should pay attention to the peculiarities of the seasonal operation of the instrument. If the blade operates at low temperatures, even with proper selection of ingredients and the quality of fuel oil mixture may be unsatisfactory (the crystallization and significantly increases viscosity). In this case, she saw to be adapted to such conditions — for example, it provides a warm carburetor during operation. Furthermore, it is desirable to heat the first saw (if it was stored in unheated rooms) to avoid undesirable effects due to the presence of condensate.

Purchase and maintenance
When buying saw a natural desire of every buyer — test the functionality of the tool. This seemingly simple process, there are pitfalls. It's all about design features chain saws. Information: any chainsaw can not be run without pre-installed and adjusted saw sets (tires, sprockets and chains), or immediately takes off the clutch. So do not rush to pull the cable — better read the instructions carefully. 
When purchasing a chainsaw, be sure to break in her 40-50 minutes at low speed (this corresponds approximately to the development of the fuel tank), then muffle the engine and check the chain tension. Next you need to make a few cuts, putting the weak force, and only then go to the manual for the full program.
break-in of each new chain (or tires) should be given to a few minutes. All this is done to the asterisk, bar and chain oil is well warmed up and got all lubricated parts saw sets. Around 90% of cases the cause of the failure output saw a careless attitude towards saw sets, and in particular the poor care chain. In other words, when the chain is sharpened, work it performs when blunt — human. On top there is an additional increase in the load on the engine. Besides the obvious inconvenience is increased load significantly reduces service life of the tool.

How fast start saw
After the obligatory prelaunch test saw sets, and fuel and oil drink is ready. Next, pull out the choke completely pick up the slack and start rope jerks run tool (with a high risk of tension sluggish pour candle that will complicate several subsequent attempts to start). If done correctly, the saw is put right the first time.
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