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Independent water supply

Drill wells, lower the pump into it and mount the head with a non-return valve, pressure gauge and tee - this is only part of the way to ensure the area with water. It may be unsuitable for drinking, too cold for irrigation plants, fed by a weak pressure. In addition, the well flow rate in individual periods of the year may simply not enough. Economical consumption of available moisture in the area will ensure an autonomous water supply system.

The dependence of the quality of water from its destination

The water in the cottage must be constantly: dishwashing, laundry, cooking, taking a shower or bath in the garage and in the bath, for watering the plants in the spring and autumn, to an artificial pond and fountain. From its purpose depends on the required quality. For example, laundry, washing dishes and shower or bath water needs with a limited number of compounds iron, neutral and soft enough, does not contain viruses and microbes. Water for irrigation may include sand and silt, but its temperature should not be lower than 12 & deg; C, so as not to harm the plants. Artificial pond is a vital environment for fish and other natural inhabitants of the underwater kingdom, but it should be possible to eliminate the spread of bacteria and germs. So water here from time to time update part. Finally, the water for drinking and cooking the highest requirements because of it depends on the quality of people's health. Thus, the total amount of water needed for life in the cottage of a family (1.5-4 m 3 in the day), the quality of drinking distinguish intended for domestic needs and for irrigation.

Central water supply can solve almost all of the above problems, as supplies water to domestic and drinking purposes. Sometimes, though, its suitability for drinking is questionable. In this case it is necessary to perform additional filtering (especially spring). Quite another thing - its own power, that is, well or borehole. Currently, even the water from an artesian well may not always be drinking. Common option - increased concentration of iron compounds, and hence increased stiffness. The result is a lot of trouble when using water even for domestic needs. Of course, it is possible to clean it all up to the quality of drinking, but it will be costly and will force the lower pressure, which is not always appropriate. More efficient to divide the total flow to different in purpose " Brooks " and each of them to cook a certain way. Experts even use the appropriate term - " water treatment ".

But first, let's talk about an autonomous water supply and easier - on your own plumbing, allows to separate the section of " Brooks " for different purposes, which it would be convenient to administer.

Independent water supply






Independent water supply area for cottage





The pressure and water pressure

The water should flow through the pipes not only in the required amount, but also with a definite pressure. As she rises from the ground and consumed on site and on all floors cottage, you need this kind of pressure in the pipes to tap on the top floor stemmed not thin thread, and a jet with sufficient pressure to use. The minimum height to which water must be raised above the ground as it moves to the draw-point (subject to overcoming resistance tubes), called the free head. According to the SNIP 2.04.02-84 *, for the first floor it is taken to be 10 m, and for each subsequent increase of 4 m. However, this requirement is not sufficient for normal operation of the entire water supply system. To create the required pressure from the faucet, the pressure must be at least 2 bar (bar), dishwasher and gas heater - 1.5 bar for the washing machine - 2 bars, for irrigation systems - 3-4 bar and for hydro units (shower or bath jacuzzi) - as many as 4 bars. And that is not all. Simultaneously, some consumers may be included, including a significant distance from the source (in the garage, in the bath, in the irrigation system). And the water pressure for each of them must have the above meaning. Therefore, the pressure generated in the water, is designed to support all figures pressure for individual consumers.

The discharge of artesian wells is not limited daily consumption of water for all family members to restrain consumption can only pump performance. If the pump is very productive, and consumers (cranes) included few, it may be so high pressure in the pipes that the bottlenecks connections will leak - leak. For this reason, the maximum pressure in the water, according to building codes in the same - 60 m, and the pressure, respectively, 6 bars.

Flow rate of open wells or wells in the sandy rock behind artesian and can sometimes be less than the actual daily consumption of water. This leads to a periodic lowering its level in the source during the day. In this case, the performance pump frequency and its inclusion is necessary to coordinate both with the flow water and a flow rate of the well. However, water consumption during the day - an indicator of random, depending not only on the presence in the house of people and their intentions, but also on the time of year: in summer it is always higher. When choosing performance pump and the pressure in the pipes allow for production rate and the required water pressure, as well as the estimated daily consumption of its most intense in the summer.

It is important to identify the two most critical mode of water supply system: maintaining the required water pressure at its maximum flow rate and limiting pressure in the absence of flow. They also affect the selection of the pump, the maximum and minimum pressures in the pipes on the material and diameter of the pipes, the need for additional tanks and their size, the possibility of further complications plumbing - increase in the length of tubes and the number of consumers. Specialists of the company " AKVATERMOSERVIS " reported that the acquisition of the pump with a supply of power and require at least additional costs when building water supply system, but in the end will cost 5-7 times cheaper than replacing the pump because of insufficient capacity of the expansion of the network.

Independent water supply

Automatic Independent water supplymodeli Jeta domestic production.

The maximum pressure to which must be calculated pump string depends on the depth of its immersion and approximately 6 bar - at a depth of 50 m, 10 bars - 90 m, 16 bars - up to 150 m and 25 bars - up to 230 m.

Features mounting stand-alone water supply system

To avoid possible freezing headroom and infiltration of surface water into the well surround it deepens the underground chamber (protective wells). The bottom of the chamber is filled with concrete or made of steel plate is not thinner than 5 mm. In this well have at such a depth that the water pipes were below the frozen ground and the upper casing appeared above the bottom at least 0.5 m. The steel casing is passed through the cuff (rubber, gidrostekloizolnuyu) inserted into a hole in the concrete floor or welded to the circumferential openings in the bottom of the steel. The walls of the chamber (having the shape of a rectangle or a circle) is made of concrete rings, brick or steel sheet. In the latter case there is no need for additional sealing, because the sheet simply welded to the steel bottom. As a result of a sealed container caisson often called, and it is now becoming increasingly popular.

Caisson resembles steel barrel buried in the ground, with detachable kryshkoy.Esli source of water is a dug well, and for its transfer jet pump used the latter can be positioned at a considerable distance, such as indoors. The length of the suction pipe is only slightly dependent on the height of the water level in the well. In contrast, when centrifugal pumps suction pipe length limited to 30-40 m. Around the well for any type of pump do a clay castle depth of 1.5-2 m and a width of 0.5 m - to eliminate infiltration of surface water.

The position of mine well or wells in the area with sand rock uniquely determined by the occurrence of surface water. But the artesian well drilled in the most convenient in terms of overall planning site. In most cases, it is arranged so that, firstly, the total length of the water pipes were smaller, secondly, the well was not on the intersection of the most commonly used route and, thirdly, an underground chamber with a rough surface portion is not turned in nizinke (for exceptions accumulation around the rain and melt water).

The pump should turn on when you open any tap water pipe. So the use of water by several family members may lead to too frequent starting and stopping it, and it will shorten its life. To reduce the number of starts, stops and maintain a constant pressure on the network, set gidroakkumulyatorny tank. He plays the role of interim buffer capacity and serves as a miniature analogue of the water tower. Now when you open any tap water will be supplied to the user by a fairly large, pre-configured pressure. It is only after the partial emptying of the tank when the pressure therein drops to a certain value, current relay switches on the pump. After closing the tap while the pump continue to pump water from the well, filling the tank and increasing the pressure therein to the original value. Construction organizations will select the volume of the tank and the pressure in accordance with the planned capacity of the pump and the peak water usage. Exhibited at the aqueduct setting the upper and lower values ​​pressure recorded. The adjustment screws are sealed to exclude the possibility inadvertent bias that could lead to an accident. Unauthorized violation of seals void the user's warranty on the performance of the company network.

Gidroakkumulyatorny tank is conveniently located in a warm storage room, basement or on the ground floor of the house.
You can provide a single main pipe through which water first go into the house and then be divorced on the site. By the way, between its outer surface and the walls of the holes in the wall or foundation should be left gap, which is filled with an elastic water-and gas-tight material, surrounded by a hard shell. Tight sealing pipe laying is unacceptable. Gidroakkumulyatorny tank easier to set up branch water supply system - right in the caisson, or after entering the house. At the entrance to the tank include a check valve (if it is not in the pump) to prevent water from dripping back into the well, and the output - manometer for pressure control and automatic valve for intake and exhaust air entering the water. If water from a well, outside of the house, and is supplied to the other branches of the aqueduct - the garage bath watering system, - the tanks gidroakkumulyatornye sometimes smaller capacity can be provided in each of them. Typically, water has two branches: year-round and seasonal. Pipes first buried below the depth of freezing pipes and allowed a second off the ground, or in the ground, at a depth of more than 1.5 bayonet spade. Most often, a ground branch made of galvanized steel pipes, and summer, underground - from the IPA or polypropylene (these materials do not corrode and do not get warm enough to temperature changes of length were significant). Summer underground branch is required to be installed with a slope of up to 2 & deg; the horizon - either side of a water source or to the side of consumers. Due to this when disabling in winter the water is removed by gravity from the pipes.

Backbone of polypropylene pipes when you enter the cottage through a period of tough skipped PVC pipe of larger diameter.
The number of taps depends on the branching irrigation systems and individual habits owners: some prefer to include water only where it is needed, and someone pours prophylactically large land area. In any case, it should be noted that each crane - a place possible leaks.


One of the cranes seasonal branch water pipe to connect the system poliva.Dlya artificial pond with fish may require special treatment of water and its periodic updating. It certainly should be considered. The specifics of the preparation of household and drinking water is beyond the scope of this article.  

The circuit arrangement of the outer part of the aqueduct in the piping from the caisson to the inside of the water pipe (" F-Plast "):
1. The pump
2. Coupling shrink
3. The power cable of the pump
4. headroom wells
5. The caisson
6. The water supply pipe (polypropylene)
7. The rope belay clips
8. Strainer
9. Gidroakkumulyatorny tank
10. The control and protection
11. Automatic air vent
12. Pressure gauge
13. The pressure switch
14. Set the alarm automation







What pipes opt

When laying the water pipeline using pipes made of polyethylene (HDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polypropylene, plastic, copper and steel. Products made of HDPE and metal- supplied in coils, so you can cut fragments of any length. Such tubes are particularly useful in the assembly, since the number of connections and consequently the risk of leakage is minimized. The remaining tubes dimensional long 4-6 m. Products made of polypropylene can be directly on site to quickly collect in the tube of any length. For this four-meter sections are held together by heating the intermediate fitting. The layout of the aqueduct site (outside) often do more than cheap tube of polypropylene or HDPE, and the room (internal) - all kinds of these tubes. The most prestigious soldering copper pipes connect, but they will cost much more expensive than others. Pipes of metal can be bent significantly, making it easy to change the configuration of the aqueduct. They are especially useful in remote places, to create a temporary structure and in those cases where you want to add any item (for example, when connecting gidroakkumulyatornogo tank). Note that non-metallic pipes are limited to maximum allowable pressure, for example 6 to 10 bars.

For outdoor water pipe commonly used main pipe diameter nominal bore (DN) 32 or 40 mm (11/4 " or 11/2 " respectively), and for internal - 15 mm (1/2 "). Mass pump string should be as small as possible. In addition, it required considerable torsional rigidity of its extensive construction, since the starting and stopping electric submersible pump develops a fairly high torque. It is for these two reasons, usually prefer monolithic pipe HDPE or polypropylene tube of welded together four-meter sections. The diameter is selected depending on the pump and its depth of immersion, and is most likely diameter 40 or 50 mm (11/2 " or 2 " respectively).

As the temperature underground is about 4 & deg; C, the temperature of deformation so long plastic tube is not afraid. Experts of the company " F-Plast " argue that the welded structures made of polypropylene most beneficial to the consumer through their thick walls and makes it easy to build up the pipe during operation. But such a need may arise in connection with a reduction in flow rate even an artesian well. After all, due to the gradual increase in total wells in the area drop in water level it becomes very likely.

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