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Types and structure major roof element

Types of roofs

From the roof structure largely depends on the choice of materials for the roof. Let's look at the basic types of roofs and some of its elements. Roofs are divided into flat and pitched. Roof flat type used for the construction of farm buildings (barns, baths, etc.). Residential house is increasingly covered sloping roofs. Pitched roofs can be divided into the attic and Built-up. Typically, attic roofs do not require thermal insulation. Roofs built-up type can be warm (located above heated) or cold (on premises that are not heated).

The attic can be used as an additional room for economic purposes. It contributes to a better ventilation of the house if there is a heating furnace, it is located in the attic of the chimney. Increasingly, in the attic, many craftsmen arrange attic.

There are several types of pitched roofs:  

  • Shed their support are the two exterior walls that have different height;
  • dual, they serve as a support for the two exterior walls that have equal height;
  • poluvalmovaya (or dual), the upper part of the end walls which are cut in the shape of a triangle (also called hips);
  •   hipped, end-rays have the form of a roof sloping triangles and trapezoidal side;
  • tent, four slope of the roof is made in the form of identical triangles that converge at a single point;
  • broken roof or gable roof, each plane of – This two rectangles that are connected to each other at an obtuse angle.

 

 

Types of pitched roofs:  
A - sloping gable  
B   - Steep gable  
In - hipped hipped  
D - pent  
D - broken line (attic) gable  
E - hipped hipped  
G, H, I - poluvalmovaya hipped

The most convenient and economical option considered Shed roofs, the slope of which does not exceed 5%. The interior space of the building is used as much as possible, while at the same time they may be a ceiling in the buildings business (baths or sheds, garages and so on.) That do not require horizontally.

If you need to use the attic for storage, drying clothes or devices attic, the roof of an apartment house is sloping or gable.

Gambrel roof are better able than others to withstand wind loads, but its construction is quite time-consuming, requires construction skills.

Making a choice in favor of one or another type of roof, do not forget to take into account not only the performance but also decorative features. For example, a high roof to a one-story building will not only give it more impressive and attractive appearance, but also allow to exploit the extra attic space. In addition, on the steep slopes of the roof of snow almost no delay.

The main elements of the roof

The structure of the roof consists of the following elements:

  • supporting structure, which is created from the rafters, wooden beams or prefabricated trusses, which include lower and upper belt and a lattice of struts and bevels located between them;
  • the ground under the roof;
  • thermal insulation and waterproofing layer;
  • proper roof.

With regard to the beam of the roof, it is advisable to use at the length of the span of less than 4.5 m, and farm – 5-10 meters.

Rafters

As an integral part of the roof to the rafters assigned a very important function: to support the crate. They take on the snow pressure, humidity and wind, all of the roof. By design, they are divided into naslonnye and hanging. Naslonnye rafters used if the span of the roof (the so called distance between supports) is less than 6.5 meters, and in the presence of additional support – 10-12 meters.

Hanging rafters are used, if the span of the roof does not have any legs and is 7-12 meters. The main difference from naslonnyh that they transmit only the vertical pressure mauerlat. Tightening the lower belt and rafters – these are the main components of hanging rafters.

 

 

Naslonnye rafters:

  1. rafter foot
  2. bolt
  3. attic floors

 

 

Hanging rafters:
  1. mauerlat
  2. rafter foot
  3. tightening
  4. Grandma
  5. brace

Depending on the material from which the house is built, rafters can be mounted:

  • using cantrail   in wood frame buildings;
  • the upper crowns in chopped, wooden buildings and cobbled;
  • for special support beams, which are also called mauerlat in buildings made of stone. This should be tolschinoy15-16 mauerlat see, he can be partial (bars enclose only under the rafter foot) or whole (pass the entire length of the construction).

If rafters have a small cross section, it is possible to prevent sagging, if you use a lattice of struts, posts and crossbar. Struts and racks can be made from boards having a width of 15 cm and a thickness of   2.5 cm, or from wooden plates, sawn from logs with a diameter of at least 13-14 cm.

During the installation of truss leg cut one in drag. To the end of the leg did not slide and shear tightness, it must be cut in the tooth, its height should be 1/3 the height of the tightening, a thorn in view of both. In addition, the tightening will not be complete and shear if rafters will be installed at a distance of about 3-4 cm from the edge. Rafter foot kerf should be at the end of tightening, in turn, push the tooth as far as possible.

To enhance the fixing rafters need a so-called double tooth. The teeth may be of the same height, but most of them adjusted to the height of the first indicators were equal to 1/5 the thickness of the tightening, and the second – 13. To fix the first tooth on an inhaling do an emphasis, and a thorn in the eye of the rafters and the second – only focus.

To further secure the rafters in puffs, bolts can be used or clamps. Bolts are used not as often as they can weaken the cross-section of puffs and rafters.

If struts and grandmother, they are connected to the cuttings, with a nest made in grandmother, and struts cut down a thorn. The connection of this type in the hanging rafters need additional fastening clamps or screws. Rigel is connected to the rafter notching dovetail « in a half-tree ». Mounted such a connection Nagel and bolts, and to give it greater strength, more and staples.

Key elements Tightening fastened together tooth plate of metal and bolts. Tightening combined with the grandmother with a clamp. To the wall of the building to protect it from atmospheric water, the eaves should be at least 550 mm.

Apart from the fact that the tightening ends of rafters are fixed, they are also further engage the walls of the building with the help of the so-called twists. In this case, the roof will not be damaged in strong winds. Twist – This impressive piece of thick wire, one end of it primatyvaetsya to the rafters, and others – a crutch, his hammer into the seam masonry at a distance of 30-35 cm from the top edge of the wall, it is also possible to the joists of the attic. If the house is wooden log, the twist can be replaced by iron bracket that connects the rafters and second crown log.

Reinforced concrete rafters in naslonnyh rafters at one end should be put on the outside wall of the building, and the second – Run to the assembly of reinforced concrete, which is supported by brick columns. The lower ends of rafters which protrude beyond the wall, able to carry the eaves of the roof. When you select a material for the rafters, it is necessary to take into account many factors: the weight of the roof, the distance between the rafters, the length of the rafter and the other.

The base under the roof  

The base can be made from a piece of rolled materials in the form of a deck or sheathing. For the manufacture of wood crates will require bars and decking – not only sticks, but also the board. Solid flooring it is advisable to do if selected for the cover web material or asbestos cement tiles. For tiles floorboards are laid by one layer with a small gap, and for the web material – in two layers: Protective and work. For the protective layer is chosen narrow boards that must be positioned at an angle of 45 degrees to the worker. Between the two decks must be placed protivovetrovuyu lining Ruberoid (roofing brand PSC-350 or PSC-300).

Crate required in cases where the roof will be covered with sheet metal, tile, wood or corrugated asbestos cement sheet during (or slate).

By making the base, you need to follow two uncomplicated rules: each element should be securely fastened to the supporting structure, and their joints are located in the Extension of the rafters.

In addition, the predetermined distance between the bars or boards must be clearly observed over the entire surface of the base. Most have a wide cornice, ridge or under the joints of the material for the roof, and the thickest (15-35 mm thicker than the other) – near the eaves. Under razzhelobki base must have a minimum width of 750-800 mm, and under the overhang of the cornice to the wall base runners must be equal to the width of the overhang. On the edges of the roof and skating wooden blocks must be installed on the edge.

Roof  

Roof – This topcoat roof that protects from rain all constructive elements of buildings and drains water to the ground. That's why one of the main requirements that apply to the roof, considered to be water-resistant. The roof can be made of various building materials, asbestos-cement or steel sheets, coils and local (glinokamyshovyh and glinosolomennyh) materials.

As regards the construction, the roof covering may consist of:

  • ramps (inclined surfaces);
  • sloping edges;
  • ridge (horizontal edges).

Valley and razzhelobki – is the name of the point of intersection for the incoming angle and eaves and gable overhangs – This edge of the roof, which go beyond the building horizontally or at an angle. The wall is going grooves atmospheric water from the roof slopes, then it falls into the rainwater, and after in the gutters and storm drains.

Stack components of the roof as possible in the transverse and in the longitudinal direction, connecting them overlap (most coatings) or locking (steel roofing sheets).

According to the construction of the roof is divided into:

  • single-layer (made up of sheets of BO, steel, asbestos-cement tiles and standing seam roof tiles);
  • laminated (rolled materials, planks, shingles, shavings, ribbon shingles).

The number of layers of multilayer roofs will range from 2 to 5, depending on the material you are preferred. This roof is quite time-consuming and less cost-effective. When each layer of the multilayer roofing lies laterally, he must overlap joints element layer lying below. If it is placed in the longitudinal direction, it has to cover the underlying layer with an overlap established GOST.

The slope of the roof  

The role of the slope of the roof is very high, because it facilitates the removal of precipitation from the roof. It is expressed in percent or degrees. Basically the construction of houses sloping roofs do, ramps have the same slope.

From the slope of the roof, which do you prefer, will depend on the coating material and the type of drain rainwater from the roof.   Drainage is organized (internal or external) and unorganized (outer).

The structure of the inner part of the organized drainage standpipe, rainwater, discharge pipe and release. You can use the design in all climatic regions.

The structure of organized outdoor includes drainage gutters and external drainpipes. It can be used in climatic regions where the outside in gutters water hardly freezes.

If fugitive drain, the water will flow down the entire length of the lower edge of the ramp, no additional equipment is required. This type of drainage is indicated for the climatic regions, where rainfall is negligible.

  Roofing  

All roofing work can be divided into 3 main groups:

  • Procuring. In this phase included the selection, sorting and cleaning, the cutting roll material. Made of sheet steel roofing elements cut slate ready mastic.
  • Preparatory. Fully prepared the ground under the roof.
  • Key. Produced laying of roofing materials, their attachment to the base, taking care of them after the installation.

Roof valleys and drainage system

The most vulnerable elements on the roof valley are considered to form the incoming angle, at any time of the year they accumulate precipitation. That is why the device element of the roof should be approached with great responsibility. Endova is a tray having a width of not less than 300 mm, made from boards having a thickness of 25 mm. It is covered with galvanized roofing or black painted steel, to the ends of it came under the roof of 200 mm on all sides.

Chimney is also surrounded by a collar of steel roofing. From the ridge sheet steel should be brought under the roof, and from the eaves on top of the roof, in the end it turns a kind of apron. Next to the tube sheet should be brought under the brickwork. According to the requirements of fire safety, roofing and sheathing shall be not less than 140 mm from the pipe, and all the elements of wood – not less than 400-500 mm.

Choosing downspouts, it is necessary to give preference to the diameter of 100-140 mm, they have no less than 120 mm from the wall. If the roof is covered with tiles or asbestos cement sheets, the need for water drainage gutters. Their foundation is a steel roof, hang them with a slope of 2-3 degrees with respect to the corners of buildings.

In the same roofing material covered and skylights. Carefully separate the junction of the roof and windows.

 

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